LANDFILL GAS - Gas generated by the natural degrading and decomposition of municipal solid waste by anaerobic microorganisms in sanitary landfills. The gases produced, carbon dioxide and methane, can be collected by a series of low-level pressure wells and can be processed into a medium Btu gas that can be burned to generate steam or electricity.
LH2 - Liquid hydrogen
LH2 STORAGE - Liquid hydrogen storage
LIFE EXTENSION - A term used to describe capital expenses which reduce operating and maintenance costs associated with continued operation of electric utility boilers. Such boilers usually have a 40 year operating life under normal circumstances.
LIFELINE RATES - Rates charged by a utility company for the low income, the disadvantaged and senior citizens. The rates provide a discount for minimum necessary utilities, such as electricity requirements of typically 300 to 400 kilowatt/hours per month.
LIQUID GAS STORAGE - Tanks for the storage of liquids that are gaseous under normal conditions (room temperature, atmospheric pressure). The substances are kept in the liquid phase either by applying a slight over-pressure (e.g. LPG - liquefied petroleum gas; 0.5 - 1.5 MPa) or by storing it at low temperatures in superinsulated devices (e.g. - hydrogen at -253°C).
LIQUID HYDROGEN - Below -253°C or 20 K hydrogen is in its liquid phase.
LPG (LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS) - A mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons, mainly propane and butane that change into liquid form under moderate pressure. LPG or propane is commonly used as a fuel for rural homes for space and water heating, as a fuel for barbecues and recreational vehicles, and as a transportation fuel. It is normally created as a by-product of petroleum refining and from natural gas production.
LIQUID BRINE - A type of geothermal energy resource that depends on naturally occurring hot water solution found within the earth. Technology for this novel energy source is being developed in the Salton Sea area in Southern California.
LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS - See LPG.
LOAD DIVERSITY - The condition that exists when the peak demands of a variety of electric customers occur at different times. This is the objective of "load molding" strategies, ultimately curbing the total capacity requirements of a utility.
LOAD FACTOR - A percentage that denotes the difference between the amount of electricity a consumer used during a given time span and the amount that would have been used if the usage had stayed at the consumer's highest demand level during the whole time. The term also is used to mean the percentage of capacity of an energy facility -- such as power plant or gas pipeline -- that is utilized in a given period of time.
LOADING FACTOR - Ratio of actual electricity consumed and total potential consumption. Used when analyzing electricity consumption in a large population. A loading factor of 0.5 means that 50% of homes are consuming all of the electricity they are able or that, on average, all of the homes are only consuming 50% of the power they have the potential to consume.
LOAD MANAGEMENT - Steps taken to reduce power demand at peak load times or to shift some of it to off-peak times. This may be with reference to peak hours, peak days or peak seasons. The main thing affecting electric peaks is air-conditioning usage, which is therefore a prime target for load management efforts. Load management may be pursued by persuading consumers to modify behavior or by using equipment that regulates some electric consumption.
LOSSES (Electric utility) - Electric energy or capacity wasted in the normal operation of a power system. Some kilowatt-hours are lost in the form of waste heat in electrical equipment such as substation conductors. LINE LOSSES are kilowatts or kilowatt-hours lost in transmission and distribution lines under certain conditions.
LOW EMISSION VEHICLE (LEV) - A vehicle certified by the California Air Resources Board to have emissions from zero to 50,000 miles no higher than 0.075 grams/mile (g/mi) of non-methane organic gases, 3.4 g/mi of carbon monoxide, and 0.2 g/mi of nitrogen oxides. Emissions from 50,000 to 100,000 miles may be slightly higher (See chart in Chapter 2.)
LUMINAIRE - A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp or lamps together with the parts designed to distribute the light, to position and protect the lamps and to connect the lamps to the power supply. California Code of Regulations, Section 2- 1602(h)].
LUX - A unit of illumination equal to the direct illumination on a surface that is everywhere one meter from a uniform point source of one candle; a unit of illumination that is equal to one lumen per square meter. Also see footcandle.